数据列表:
柳叶菜科 : 植物 | eFloras | 来源:http://www.efloras.org/
柳叶菜科 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
柳叶菜科 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息-云南植物志 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
柳叶菜科 : 植物 | 中国种子植物 | 来源:中国种子植物光盘

Efloras
分类等级:科

Onagraceae

柳叶菜科
Accepted Name
原始页面连接:www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=10630
出处:Flora of China
所在卷:FOC Vol. 13
29. Onagraceae

柳叶菜科 liu ye cai ke

Authors:Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Zhanhe Ji, Brigitta E. E. Duyfjes, Jenny Qiuyun Xiang, David E. Boufford, Delin Wu, Kai Larsen, Jiarui Chen, Dennis W. Stevenson, Tingzhi Xu, Yousheng Chen, Piet C. de Jong, Herman John Oterdoom, Chin-Sung Chang, Shumei Huang, Jin Murata, Chih-chi Ting, Michael G. Gilbert, Dezhi Fu, John H. Wiersema, Qiner Yang, Gordon C. Tucker, Guofang Wu, Kai Larsen, Prof. Zhiduan Chen, Jun Wen, Haining Qin, Shirley A. Graham, Michael G. Gilbert, Anmin Lu, Allan J. Bornstein, Nianhe Xia, Anthony R. Brach, Dequan Lu, Kai Larsen, Jin-tang Pan, Cuizhi Gu, Shumei Huang, Chao-fen Wei, Shu-ying Jin, Lingdi Lu, Shinobu Akiyama, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, James Cullen, Richard J. Gornall, Ulla-Maj Hultgård, Hideaki Ohba, Douglas E. Soltis, Yuhu Liu, Nianhe Xia, Liu Yuhu, Richard M. K. Saunders, Bingtao Li, Petra Hoffmann, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Gordon D. McPherson, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Langran Xu, Byoung-Hee Choi, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen, Hang Sun, Mats Thulin, Hang Sun, Michael A. Vincent, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Mats Thulin, Jianqiang Li, Hang Sun, Zhi Wei, Roger M. Polhill, Michael G. Gilbert, Xiangyun Zhu, Kai Larsen, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Warren L. Wagner, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zheng-de Zhu, Yang Guangyao, Chris Stapleton, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Nianhe Xia, Liang-zhi Jia, Chris Stapleton, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Zhanhe Ji, Alan W. Meerow, Prof. Zhiduan Chen, Jun Wen, Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin, Bruce Bartholomew, Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson, Steven A. Spongberg, Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Aljos Farjon, Zhi-Yun Zhang, Anmin Lu, William G. D'Arcy, Young-fen Wu, Hans P. Nooteboom, Liguo Fu, Nan Li, Robert R. Mill, Dezhi Fu, Peter K. Endress, Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl, Rudolf V. Kamelin, Bingtao Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland, Warren L. Wagner, Guofang Wu, Kai Larsen, Lingdi Lu, Nicholas J. Turland, Wencai Wang, Kai-yu Pan, Zhen-yu Li, Anna L. Weitzman, Laurence E. Skog, Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert, Laurence J. Dorr, Zhi-Yun Zhang, Heidrun E. K. Hartmann, Zhengyi Wu, Zhe-Kun Zhou, Michael G. Gilbert, Yingxin Liu, Lihua Zhou, Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Peter H. Raven, David E. Boufford, Warren L. Wagner

Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubs, rarely trees to 30 m tall, often with epidermal oil cells, usually with internal phloem. Leaves simple, spirally arranged, opposite, or occasionally whorled, entire or toothed to pinnatifid; stipules present and usually caducous, or absent. Flowers perfect and hermaphroditic or occasionally unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, (2-)4(-7)-merous, axillary, in leafy spikes or racemes or solitary, or occasionally in panicles, all but Ludwigia with distinct floral tube, nectariferous within. Sepals green or colored, valvate. Petals as many as sepals or rarely absent, variously colored, imbricate or convolute and occasionally clawed. Stamens as many as sepals in one series or 2 × as many as sepals in 2 series [in Lopezia Cavanilles reduced to 2 or 1 plus 1 sterile staminode]; anthers versatile or basifixed, dithecal, sometimes cross-partitioned, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen grains almost always united by viscin threads, shed as monads, tetrads, or polyads. Ovary inferior, with as many carpels and locules as sepals, septa sometimes thin or absent at maturity; placentation axile or parietal, ovules 1 to many per locule, in 1 or several rows or clustered, anatropous, bitegmic; style 1; stigma with as many lobes as sepals or clavate to globose. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent nut or berry. Seeds small, smooth or variously sculptured, sometimes with a coma [or wing], with straight oily embryo, endosperm lacking.

Seventeen genera and ca. 650 species: widespread in temperate and subtropical areas, but best represented in W North America; six genera (two introduced), 64 species (11 endemic, 11 introduced), and five natural hybrids (two endemic) in China.

Onagraceae are a well-defined, monophyletic family in the order Myrtales, with a sister relationship to Lythraceae. Within the order Myrtales, the Onagraceae are distinguished by a number of features including (1) a distinctive 4-nucleate embryo sac; (2) abundant raphides in vegetative cells; (3) paracrystalline beaded pollen ektexine; and (4) pollen with viscin threads.

Some species of Oenothera are grown for the oil in their seeds, which contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA), used for medicinal purposes. Several species of Onagraceae also are cultivated in China for their horticultural value, including species of Fuchsia Linnaeus (generally distinguished by having large, tubular, red or orange flowers and fleshy berries) and Clarkia Pursh (distinguished by having stigmas with commissural lobes with dry, unicellular papillae, and dry, elongate capsules similar to those of Epilobium but lacking comas on the seeds). The most commonly cultivated Fuchsia is F. ×hybrida Hort. and the related F. magellanica Lamarck in F. sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) Candolle from South America; F. triphylla Linnaeus, in F. sect. Fuchsia, from Hispaniola, is known from only one gathering in Fujian. Similarly, Clarkia amoena (Lehmann) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride is widely cultivated in China, whereas C. pulchella Pursh is known from only one gathering in Xizang; both species are native to W North America. There are no naturalized species of either Clarkia or Fuchsia in China.

Chen Chiajui, Lu Shangzhi & Li Yibin. 2000. Onagraceae. In: Chen Chiajui, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 53(2): 27-133.


1 Sepals 2; fruit bristly with hooked hairs, indehiscent.   2 Circaea
+ Sepals (3 or)4 or 5(-7); fruit not bristly with hooked hairs, dehiscent in most species   (2)
       
2 (1) Seeds with a coma of hairs; petals mostly rose-purple to white, never yellow   (3)
+ Seeds lacking a coma of hairs; petals mostly yellow, rarely rose-purple to white   (4)
       
3 (2) Leaves spirally arranged or alternate; floral tube absent; flowers slightly zygomorphic; petals entire; stamens subequal in a single whorl; stigma deeply 4-lobed.   3 Chamerion
+ Leaves opposite at least below inflorescence; floral tube present; flowers actinomorphic; petals cleft or emarginate; stamens in two unequal whorls; stigma entire or 4-lobed.   4 Epilobium
       
4 (2) Sepals persistent after anthesis; floral tube not prolonged beyond ovary; flowers (3 or)4 or 5(-7)-merous.   1 Ludwigia
+ Sepals deciduous after anthesis (often with floral tube); floral tube prolonged, often well beyond ovary; flowers (3 or)4-merous   (5)
       
5 (4) Fruit a dehiscent, many seeded capsule.   5 Oenothera
+ Fruit a nutlike, hard, indehiscent, 1-4-seeded capsule.   6 Gaura

Authors: Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Peter H. Raven, David E. Boufford & Warren L. Wagner