数据列表:
苋科 : 植物 | eFloras | 来源:http://www.efloras.org/
苋科 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
苋科 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息-云南植物志 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
苋科 : 植物 | 中国种子植物 | 来源:中国种子植物光盘

Efloras
分类等级:科

Amaranthaceae

苋科
Accepted Name
原始页面连接:www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=10031
出处:Flora of China
所在卷:FOC Vol. 5
Amaranthaceae A. L. Jussieu

苋科 xian ke

Authors:Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Peter Stevens, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Zhi Wei, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Hang Sun, Les Pedley, Ren Sa, Delin Wu, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Hang Sun, Puhua Huang, Michael G. Gilbert, Mats Thulin, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Ren Sa, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear, Langran Xu, Byoung-Hee Choi, Xiangyun Zhu, Stanley L. Welsh, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Bojian Bao, Anthony R. Brach, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Xiangyun Zhu, Kai Larsen, Yingxin Liu, Chang Zhaoyang, Gennady P. Yakovlev, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Kai Larsen, Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Zhi Wei, Roger M. Polhill, Michael G. Gilbert, Langran Xu, Dietrich Podlech, Xiangyun Zhu, Stanley L. Welsh, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Mats Thulin, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Jin Xiaohua, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Paul Ormerod, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Nianhe Xia, Chris Stapleton, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Zhen-lan Wu, Paul M. Peterson, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Mingli Zhang, Magnus Lidén, Mingli Zhang, Magnus Lidén, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Stephen A. Renvoize, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Nianhe Xia, Liang-zhi Jia, Chris Stapleton, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Yinzheng Wang, Michael G. Gilbert, Hui Ren, Jun Wen, Liu Quanru, Michele Funston, Liu Quanru, Michele Funston, Jin-shuang Ma, Michele Funston, Cuizhi Gu, Ching-I Peng, Nicholas J. Turland, Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert, Laurence J. Dorr, Wei-liang Ma, Bruce Bartholomew, Tianlu Min, Anthony R. Brach, Shu-kun Chen, Sir Ghillean (Iain) T. Prance, Shugang Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Frank White, Shugang Li, Langran Xu, Dezhao Chen, Xiangyun Zhu, Puhua Huang, Zhi Wei, Ren Sa, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Bojian Bao, Delin Wu, Hang Sun, Gao Xinfen, Supee S. Larsen, Ivan Nielsen, Dieter Podlech, Yingxin Liu, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Chang Zhaoyang, Kai Larsen, Jianqiang Li, Stanley L. Welsh, Michael A. Vincent, Mingli Zhang, Michael G. Gilbert, Les Pedley, Brian D. Schrire, Gennady P. Yakovlev, Mats Thulin, Ivan C. Nielsen, Byoung-Hee Choi, Nicholas J. Turland, Roger M. Polhill, Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Ding Hou, Yu Iokawa, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear, Gregory Kenicer, Tomoyuki Nemoto, J. Michael Lock, Alfonso Delgado Salinas, Tatiana E. Kramina, Anthony R. Brach, Bruce Bartholomew, Dmitry D. Sokoloff, Shugang Li, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Puhua Huang, Fa-Nan Wei, Hongbin Cui, Henk van der Werff, Delin Wu, Helen Kennedy, Huaxing Qiu, Paul Hiepko, Hua Peng, Wm. Wayt Thomas, Bruce Bartholomew, Jenny Qiuyun Xiang, David E. Boufford, Liu Quanru, Lihua Zhou, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Stefan Dressler, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Hang Sun, Bruce Bartholomew, Zhi Wei, Michael A. Vincent, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Mats Thulin, Dezhao Chen, Les Pedley, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Les Pedley, Jianqiang Li, Roger M. Polhill, Michael G. Gilbert, Bojian Bao, Nicholas J. Turland, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Langran Xu, Kai Larsen, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Langran Xu, Byoung-Hee Choi, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen, Delin Wu, Ivan C. Nielsen, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Kai Larsen, Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Bojian Bao, Nicholas J. Turland, Gregory Kenicer, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Yu Iokawa, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Bojian Bao, Nicholas J. Turland, Bojian Bao, Kai Larsen, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Hang Sun, Michael A. Vincent, Dezhao Chen, Les Pedley, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Hang Sun, Bruce Bartholomew, Puhua Huang, Henk van der Werff, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Dudley Clayton, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Zhanhe Ji, Guanghua Zhu, Liu Zhongjian, Yi-Bo Luo, Jin Xiaohua, Jeffrey J. Wood, Phillip J. Cribb, Stephan W. Gale, Jaap J. Vermeulen, Paul Ormerod, Howard P. Wood, Dudley Clayton, Alexandra Bell, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Peter H. Raven, Hua Peng, David J. Mabberley, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Zheng-ping Wang, Chris Stapleton, Liang Liu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Liang Liu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Liang Liu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Mingli Zhang, Magnus Lidén, Yinzheng Wang, David Hearn, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Paul M. Peterson, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Liang Liu, Nikolai N. Tzvelev, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Supee Saksuwan Larsen, Michael A. Vincent, Dezhao Chen, Les Pedley, Dequan Lu, Heidrun E. K. Hartmann, Shu-kun Chen, Haiying Ma, Yuxing Feng, Gabrielle Barriera, Pierre-André Loizeau, Zhengyi Wu, Zhe-Kun Zhou, Bruce Bartholomew, Dezhi Fu, Peter K. Endress, Haining Qin, Anthony R. Brach, Ruizheng Fang, Constance Lincoln, Delin Wu, W. John Kress, Bingtao Li, Thomas K. Wilson, Liu Quanru, Mark Watson, Tianlu Min, Bruce Bartholomew, Hua Peng, Michael G. Gilbert, De-Zhu Li, Cai Jie, Jun Wen, Prof. Zhiduan Chen, Hui Ren, Jun Wen, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Stefan Dressler, Huaxing Qiu, Michael G. Gilbert, Bingtao Li, Hans-Joachim (Hajo) Esser, Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert, Zhi Wei, Michael G. Gilbert, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Bojian Bao, Nicholas J. Turland, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Langran Xu, Mingli Zhang, Dietrich Podlech, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Mats Thulin, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Ding Hou, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Bojian Bao, Michael A. Vincent, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Jianqiang Li, Hang Sun, Roger M. Polhill, Michael G. Gilbert, Hang Sun, Brian D. Schrire, Bojian Bao, Michael G. Gilbert, Zhi Wei, Michael G. Gilbert, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen, Langran Xu, Xiangyun Zhu, Bojian Bao, Mingli Zhang, Hang Sun, Dietrich Podlech, Stanley L. Welsh, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Kai Larsen, Anthony R. Brach, Puhua Huang, Hiroyoshi Ohashi, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Kai Larsen, Hang Sun, Bruce Bartholomew, Xiangyun Zhu, Kai Larsen, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Dezhao Chen, Les Pedley, Zhi Wei, Les Pedley, Dezhao Chen, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Mats Thulin, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Ren Sa, Michael G. Gilbert, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Delin Wu, Mats Thulin, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xi-wen Li, Jie Li, Henk van der Werff, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Phillip J. Cribb, Stephan W. Gale, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Xinqi Chen, Jeffrey J. Wood, Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb, Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Peter H. Raven, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Stephen A. Renvoize, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Liang Liu, Nikolai N. Tzvelev, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Liang Liu, Guanghua Zhu, Klaus Ammann, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Mingli Zhang, Magnus Lidén, Mingli Zhang, Magnus Lidén, Mingli Zhang, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Guanghua Zhu, Liang Liu, Marina V. Olonova, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Shou-liang Chen, Stephen A. Renvoize, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Sheng-lian Lu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Nianhe Xia, Liang-zhi Jia, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Nianhe Xia, Chris Stapleton, De-Zhu Li, Chris Stapleton, Shou-liang Chen, Sylvia M. Phillips, Bi-xing Sun, Sylvia M. Phillips, Zhen-lan Wu, Sylvia M. Phillips, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Dianxiang Zhang, Thomas G. Hartley, Prof. Zhiduan Chen, Jun Wen, Hua Peng, Michele Funston, Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch, Steven E. Clemants

Herbs, clambering subshrubs, shrubs, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate. Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual, or sterile and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads), racemes, or thyrsoid structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23)-veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments free, united into a cup at base or ± entirely into a tube, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers (1- or)2-loculed, dorsifixed, introrsely dehiscent. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular, reniform, subglobose, or shortly cylindric, smooth or verruculose.

About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.

Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes. Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side). The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.

Digera arvensis Forsskål (Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 65. 1775) has been reported from Anhui. However, we have seen no specimens and are therefore unable to treat it in this account.

Kuan Ke-chien. 1979. Amaranthaceae. In: Kung Hsien-wu & Tsien Cho-po, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(2): 194–241.


1 Leaves alternate.   (2)
+ Leaves opposite.   (5)
       
2 (1) Ovary with 2 to many ovules.   (3)
+ Ovary with 1 ovule.   (4)
       
3 (2) Fruit a red berry, indehiscent.   1 Deeringia
+ Fruit a utricle or capsule, dehiscent by a lid.   2 Celosia
       
4 (2) Flowers bisexual; inflorescences heads; filaments at base connate into a cup; seed with aril.   3 Allmania
+ Flowers unisexual; inflorescences complex thyrsoid structures; filaments free; seed without aril.   4 Amaranthus
       
5 (1) Flowers 2 or more in cymous partial inflorescence, sterile flowers present.   5 Cyathula
+ Flowers solitary, without any branching in axils of bracteoles, without sterile flowers.   (6)
       
6 (5) Inflorescences heads or complex thyrsoid structures; anthers 1-loculed.   (7)
+ Inflorescences spikes; anthers 2-loculed.   (10)
       
7 (6) Inflorescences complex thyrsoid structures, flowers unisexual.   11 Iresine
+ Inflorescences condensed heads, flowers bisexual.   (8)
       
8 (7) Stigma 1, capitate, pseudostaminodes present.   12 Alternanthera
+ Stigmas 2-lobed or forming 2 or 3 linear branches, pseudostaminodes absent.   (9)
       
9 (8) Bracteoles with distal crest; filaments ± fused into a tube, lateral appendages absent.   13 Gomphrena
+ Bracteoles without crest; filaments united at base, lateral appendages absent.   14 Philoxerus
       
10 (6) Pseudostaminodes fringed or long fimbriate.   (11)
+ Pseudostaminodes triangular, subulate, oblong, or absent.   (12)
       
11 (10) Midvein of bracteoles flexible, mucronate; a large woody climber.   15 Stilbanthus
+ Midvein of bracteoles spiny, long excurrent; an herb or a shrub.   9 Achyranthes
       
12 (10) Fruit dehiscent by lid.   10 Trichuriella
+ Fruit indehiscent or irregularly circumscissile.   (13)
       
13 (12) Tepals 1-veined, hairy.   6 Aerva
+ Tepals 3-7-veined, glabrous or hairy.   (14)
       
14 (13) Pseudostaminodes absent (in Chinese species); utricles indehiscent, seeds smooth.   7 Psilotrichum
+ Pseudostaminodes present, triangular; utricles irregularly bursting, seeds tuberculate.   8 Psilotrichopsis

Authors: Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch & Steven E. Clemants