数据列表:
葱属 : 植物 | eFloras | 来源:http://www.efloras.org/
葱属 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
葱属 : 植物 | 中国植物物种信息-云南植物志 | 来源:http://www.plants.csdb.cn/
葱属 : 植物 | 中国种子植物 | 来源:中国种子植物光盘

Efloras
所属科:Liliaceae
父拉丁名:Liliaceae
分类等级:属

Allium

葱属
Accepted Name
原始页面连接:www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=101086
出处:Flora of China
所在卷:FOC Vol. 24
32. Allium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 294. 1753.

葱属 cong shu

Xu Jiemei (许介眉); Rudolf V. Kamelin

Caloscordum Herbert.

Herbs perennial, bulbiferous, sometimes with well-developed, thick or thin rhizomes, rarely with stolons or tuberous roots, usually with onionlike, leeklike, or garliclike odor when fresh. Bulb covered with a tunic. Leaves sessile, very rarely narrowed into a petiole, with a closed leaf sheath at base, linear, linear-lanceolate, or lorate to orbicular-ovate, cross section flat, angled, or semiterete to terete, fistulose or solid. Scape terminal or lateral, sheathed or naked. Inflorescence a terminal umbel, sometimes with bulblets, rarely flowerless and with bulblets only, enclosed in a spathelike bract before anthesis. Pedicels with or without basal bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, very rarely degenerating into unisexual (when plants dioecious). Perianth segments free or united into a tube at base. Filaments usually connate at base and adnate to perianth segments, entire or toothed. Ovary with 1 to several ovules per locule; septa often containing nectaries opening by pores at base of ovary. Style simple; stigma entire or 3-cleft. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds black, rhomboidal or spheroidal.

About 660 species: N hemisphere, mainly in Asia, some species in Africa and Central and South America; 138 species (50 endemic, five introduced) in China.

Most species of Allium are edible, and some have long been cultivated in China and elsewhere, e.g., A. cepa A. chinense A. fistulosum A. porrum A. sativum and A. tuberosum.


1 Leaves 1--3, linear to orbicular-ovate, base usually narrowed into a petiole; ovary base often constricted into a short stipe; ovules 1 per locule.   (2)
+ Leaves several, lorate or linear, cross section semiterete or terete, solid or fistulose, base usually not narrowed into a petiole; ovules 2 to several per locule; if leaf base narrowed into a petiole or ovules 1 per locule then bulb tunic never distinctly reticulate.   (7)
       
2 (1) Leaf 1, long petiolate, ovate to broadly elliptic-ovate, base cordate   4 Allium funckiifolium
+ Leaves 2 or 3.   (3)
       
3 (2) Outer perianth segments narrower than inner ones.   (4)
+ Outer perianth segments as wide as or wider than inner ones.   (5)
       
4 (3) Base of leaf blade cuneate, decurrent   1 Allium victorialis
+ Base of leaf blade rounded to cordate, not decurrent   2 Allium listera
       
5 (3) Scape shorter than leaves, 2--5 cm, covered with leaf sheaths for 3/4--4/5 its length   5 Allium nanodes
+ Scape longer than leaves, 10--60 cm, covered with leaf sheaths only at base.   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaves lanceolate-oblong to ovate-oblong, base rounded to cordate, petiole distinct   3 Allium ovalifolium
+ Leaves linear, linear-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic-oblanceolate, or rarely narrowly elliptic, base narrowed, petiole indistinct   6 Allium prattii
       
7 (1) Roots thick and fleshy, sometimes subtuberous; leaves with distinct midvein; scape usually 2- or 3-angled; ovules 1 or 2 per locule.   (8)
+ Roots thin; leaves without distinct midvein; scape terete or several angled; ovules 2 to several per locule.   (17)
       
8 (7) Ovules 1 per locule (in A. omeiense a few ovaries in same umbel with 2 ovules per locule).   (9)
+ Ovules 2 per locule.   (13)
       
9 (8) Umbel laxly fascicled, few flowered; pedicels unequal; style much shorter than ovary; stigma 3-cleft   16 Allium trifurcatum
+ Umbel hemispheric to globose, many flowered; pedicels equal; style equaling or longer than ovary; stigma entire, punctiform.   (10)
       
10 (9) Scape terminal   7 Allium guanxianense
+ Scape lateral.   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, distinctly contracted at base; filaments longer than perianth segments   8 Allium xiangchengense
+ Leaves linear or lorate to lorate-oblanceolate, not contracted at base; filaments shorter than to subequaling perianth segments.   (12)
       
12 (11) Perianth segments 4--7.5 mm, free; filaments slightly shorter than to subequaling perianth segments   9 Allium hookeri
+ Perianth segments 9--11 mm, connate at base into a tube ca. 1 mm; filaments ca. 1/2 as long as perianth segments   10 Allium omeiense
       
13 (8) Perianth yellow, segments united for ca. 1 mm at base   11 Allium chienchuanense
+ Perianth white, red, purple-red, or dark purple, segments free.   (14)
       
14 (13) Filaments connate into a tube for 2/3--3/4 their length   15 Allium cyathophorum
+ Filaments connate only at base.   (15)
       
15 (14) Perianth white, segments lanceolate, apex acuminate or irregularly 2-lobed   12 Allium fasciculatum
+ Perianth red, purple-red, or dark purple, rarely whitish, segments oblong, narrowly so, or ovate-oblong, apex retuse, truncate, or obtuse.   (16)
       
16 (15) Perianth stellately spreading, reflexed after anthesis, inner and outer segments similar; pedicels straight   13 Allium wallichii
+ Perianth campanulate, not reflexed after anthesis, inner segments somewhat longer and narrower than outer ones; pedicels nodding at apex   14 Allium macranthum
       
17 (7) Bulb usually solitary, globose, ovoid-globose, or ovoid (if cylindric to ovoid-cylindric, then leaves thick, terete, and fistulose); rhizomes obscure.   (18)
+ Bulbs usually several in a cluster, cylindric, conical, or ovoid-cylindric, rarely ovoid; rhizomes well developed.   (60)
       
18 (17) Leaves usually thick, terete, fistulose, smooth.   (19)
+ Leaves slender, flat, triangular-flat, semiterete, or rarely terete, fistulose.   (29)
       
19 (18) Bulb flattened globose, globose, or ovoid-globose, rarely cylindric with thickened base; base of inner filaments 1-toothed on each side (if entire, then scape often undeveloped).   (20)
+ Bulb cylindric to ovoid-cylindric; filaments entire.   (23)
       
20 (19) Scape solid   100 Allium galanthum
+ Scape fistulose.   (21)
       
21 (20) Scape developed; plants propagated by seeds or bulblets   98 Allium cepa
+ Scape usually undeveloped; plants propagated by bulbs.   (22)
       
22 (21) Bulb ovoid-globose to ovoid   99 Allium cepiforme
+ Bulb narrowly ovoid or cylindric-ovoid   98 Allium cepa
       
23 (19) Filaments shorter than perianth segments, connate into a tube for 1/3--3/4 their length   102 Allium atrosanguineum
+ Filaments shorter or longer than perianth segments, connate only at base.   (24)
       
24 (23) Perianth pale red, pale purple, or purple-red.   (25)
+ Perianth yellow to white.   (27)
       
25 (24) Pedicels unequal, shorter than to nearly as long as perianth; filaments 1/3--1/2(--2/3) as long as perianth segments   103 Allium schoenoprasum
+ Pedicels subequal, 1.5--3 × as long as perianth; filaments slightly shorter than to longer than perianth segments.   (26)
       
26 (25) Perianth rose pink or dark pink; filaments slightly shorter than to equaling perianth segments   105 Allium maximowiczii
+ Perianth pale purple; filaments longer than perianth segments   106 Allium ledebourianum
       
27 (24) Leaves and scape ± thin, to 5 mm thick; perianth yellow or pale yellow   95 Allium chrysanthum
+ Leaves and scape robust, more than 5 mm thick; perianth white or yellowish white.   (28)
       
28 (27) Bulb ovoid-cylindric, robust, tunic red-brown, thinly leathery; perianth yellowish white; pedicels slightly shorter than to 2 × as long as perianth   96 Allium altaicum
+ Bulb cylindric, tunic usually white, rarely light red-brown, membranous; perianth white; pedicels 2--3 × as long as perianth   97 Allium fistulosum
       
29 (18) Ovules 4 or more per locule.   (30)
+ Ovules 2 per locule.   (38)
       
30 (29) Perianth segments united into a tube proximally.   (31)
+ Perianth segments free.   (33)
       
31 (30) Scape (15--)20--50 cm; pedicels (4.5--)7--11 cm; perianth segments 7--10 mm; ovules (5 or)6(--8) per locule   137 Allium neriniflorum
+ Scape 15--30(--40) cm; pedicels 0.8--4(--7) cm; perianth segments 5--7(--8) mm; ovules (3 or)4 per locule, rarely 1 or 2 locules with 5 or 6 ovules.   (32)
       
32 (31) Perianth red to purple   135 Allium tubiflorum
+ Perianth white   136 Allium inutile
       
33 (30) Filaments connate and adnate to perianth segments for 1/2--2/3 their length.   (34)
+ Filaments connate and adnate to perianth segments only at base.   (35)
       
34 (33) Leaves linear, 4--6(--8) mm wide; perianth cupular, segments broadly elliptic, 8--11 × 4--4.5 mm   129 Allium oreophilum
+ Leaves broadly linear, (5--)10--25 mm wide; perianth narrowly campanulate, segments linear-oblong, 7--10(--15) × 2.5--3 mm   134 Allium winklerianum
       
35 (33) Leaves 1(or 2); perianth segments 6--6.5 mm, without strong midvein; ovary stipitate   133 Allium fetisowii
+ Leaves (1 or)2 or 3; perianth segments 4.5--5.5 mm, with strong midvein; ovary sessile.   (36)
       
36 (35) Perianth red to purple-red   132 Allium robustum
+ Perianth white or whitish lilac to lilac-pink.   (37)
       
37 (36) Leaves 1--1.5(--2) cm wide, apex gradually attenuate   130 Allium tulipifolium
+ Leaves 0.7--1.5 cm wide, apex acute   131 Allium roborowskianum
       
38 (29) Inner filaments 1-toothed on each side at base, apex of tooth long filiform and longer than anther-bearing cusp of filament.   (39)
+ Inner filaments entire or, if 1-toothed on each side, apex of tooth not filiform and never longer than anther-bearing cusp of filament.   (40)
       
39 (38) Umbel with flowers only; filaments longer than perianth segments   127 Allium porrum
+ Umbel with both flowers and bulblets; filaments shorter than perianth segments   128 Allium sativum
       
40 (38) Perianth blue, usually becoming bluish purple when dried.   (41)
+ Perianth white, pale red, red, purple-red, purple, or pale green.   (42)
       
41 (40) Leaves flat, abaxially 1-angled, usually twisted when dried   122 Allium caeruleum
+ Leaves semiterete, not twisted when dried   123 Allium caesium
       
42 (40) Filaments not more than 2/3 as long as perianth segments.   (43)
+ Filaments more than 2/3 as long as perianth segments.   (45)
       
43 (42) Pedicels ca. 3 × as long as perianth   126 Allium jacquemontii
+ Pedicels shorter than or subequaling perianth.   (44)
       
44 (43) Scape 10--15(--20) cm; perianth segments obtuse or attenuate at apex; broadened part of inner filaments with 1 small tooth on each side   124 Allium schoenoprasoides
+ Scape (15--)25--40 cm; perianth segments acute at apex; broadened part of inner filaments entire   125 Allium sairamense
       
45 (42) Plants dioecious; female flowers 1 per scape; male flowers 2--4(or 5) per scape   138 Allium monanthum
+ Plants not dioecious; flowers bisexual, more than 2 per scape.   (46)
       
46 (45) Pedicels ebracteolate or only a few bracteolate at base.   (47)
+ All pedicels subtended by bracteoles.   (51)
       
47 (46) Pedicels equaling or slightly longer than perianth; ovary without concave nectaries at base; filaments 2/3--3/4 as long as perianth segments   107 Allium grisellum
+ Pedicels more than 2 × as long as perianth; ovary with concave nectaries at base; filaments equaling or longer than perianth segments.   (48)
       
48 (47) Leaves flat; pedicels unequal; inner filaments with a rounded, irregularly denticulate lobe on each side near base   112 Allium songpanicum
+ Leaves semiterete; pedicels equal or subequal; inner filaments entire or with an entire tooth on each side near base.   (49)
       
49 (48) Ovary tuberculate; style slightly exserted   120 Allium pallasii
+ Ovary smooth; style conspicuously exserted.   (50)
       
50 (49) Perianth pink to pale purple-red; filaments slightly longer than perianth segments   115 Allium eusperma
+ Perianth white; filaments ca. 2 × as long as perianth segments   116 Allium maowenense
       
51 (46) Bulb tunic leathery, splitting along veins; perianth segments pale green with green midvein   117 Allium sabulosum
+ Bulb tunic membranous or papery, not splitting, or only apex splitting and becoming fibrous or reticulate; perianth segments white, pale red, red, or purple-red to dark purple, rarely pale green.   (52)
       
52 (51) Bulb ovoid or narrowly so.   (53)
+ Bulb ovoid-globose to subglobose (if ovoid, then ovary with concave nectaries at base without hoodlike projections).   (57)
       
53 (52) Leaves 3--5-angled in cross section, fistulose; scape lateral; base of inner filaments 1-toothed on each side   108 Allium chinense
+ Leaves semiterete or triangular in cross section, fistulose at least basally; base of inner filaments entire or occasionally 1-toothed on each side.   (54)
       
54 (53) Leaves 1--2 mm wide, semiterete; perianth white or pale red, sometimes greenish.   (55)
+ Leaves 2--5 mm wide, 3-angled or -keeled to obscurely 3-angled; perianth red to purple or lilac-pink to red-violet.   (56)
       
55 (54) Filaments slightly longer than to 1.5 × as long as perianth segments; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections   109 Allium yanchiense
+ Filaments shorter or slightly longer than perianth segments; ovary without concave nectaries at base   113 Allium juldusicola
       
56 (54) Bulb tunic thinly leathery, split and becoming fibrous and subreticulate, rarely subentire; leaves keeled to obscurely 3-angled, rarely subfistulose near base; umbel globose, densely many flowered; perianth lilac-pink to red-violet   110 Allium sacculiferum
+ Bulb tunic membranous to scarious or subpapery, sometimes apex laciniate to fibrous; leaves 3-angled, subfistulose; umbel subfascicled to globose, laxly many flowered; perianth red to purple   111 Allium thunbergii
       
57 (52) Pedicels equaling to slightly longer than perianth   119 Allium glomeratum
+ Pedicels more than 2 × as long as perianth.   (58)
       
58 (57) Leaves 0.5--1.5 mm wide, terete; scape covered with leaf sheaths for 1/3--1/2 its length; ovary tuberculate   118 Allium delicatulum
+ Leaves 1--5 mm wide, flat, semiterete, or triangular-semiterete; scape covered with leaf sheaths for less than 1/3 its length; ovary smooth.   (59)
       
59 (58) Leaves flat; umbel without bulblets; filaments 1.5--2 × as long as perianth segments   114 Allium tanguticum
+ Leaves semiterete or triangular-semiterete; umbel ± with bulblets; filaments shorter than perianth segments   121 Allium macrostemon
       
60 (17) Bulb tunic reticulate, subreticulate, or laxly fibrous.   (61)
+ Bulb tunic entire, never reticulate or only apical part becoming fibrous.   (100)
       
61 (60) Perianth pale blue to blue or purplish blue.   (62)
+ Perianth white, pale red, purple-red, purple, dark purple, or yellow.   (68)
       
62 (61) Filaments shorter than perianth segments.   (63)
+ Filaments longer than perianth segments.   (65)
       
63 (62) Perianth segments narrowly oblong to narrowly ovate-oblong, 11--14(--17) mm, margin entire; filaments usually ca. 4/5 as long as perianth segments; style usually 2--3 × as long as ovary   22 Allium beesianum
+ Perianth segments ovate or ovate-oblong, 6--10 mm, at least margin of inner ones irregularly denticulate; filaments usually 1/2--2/3 as long as perianth segments; style shorter than or subequaling ovary.   (64)
       
64 (63) Perianth segments acuminate at apex, equal, irregularly denticulate at margin, rarely outer ones entire; leaves abaxially keeled, usually twisted when dry   23 Allium yuanum
+ Perianth segments obtuse at apex, inner ones longer and wider than outer, only inner ones irregularly denticulate at margin; leaves flat   24 Allium sikkimense
       
65 (62) Leaves semiterete   25 Allium cyaneum
+ Leaves flat.   (66)
       
66 (65) Pedicels extremely unequal, 2--4 × as long as perianth   28 Allium heteronema
+ Pedicels subequal, 1--2 × as long as perianth.   (67)
       
67 (66) Bulb tunic reticulate; umbel laxly few flowered; pedicels 1.5--2 × as long as perianth; base of inner filaments with 1 short tooth on each side, apex of tooth entire   27 Allium henryi
+ Bulb tunic subreticulate; umbel densely many flowered; pedicels 1--1.5 × as long as perianth; base of inner filaments with 1 long tooth on each side, apex of tooth sometimes denticulate   31 Allium stenodon
       
68 (61) Filaments more than 1.3 × as long as perianth segments.   (69)
+ Filaments less than 1.3 × as long as perianth segments.   (79)
       
69 (68) Perianth segments basally united for 1.5--2 mm into a short tube; filaments basally connate for 1.5--2 mm and adnate to perianth segments   43 Allium siphonanthum
+ Perianth segments free; filaments connate only at base.   (70)
       
70 (69) Bulb tunic usually red, distinctly reticulate; inner filaments broadened for 1/3--1/2 their length; ovary without concave nectaries at base   48 Allium przewalskianum
+ Bulb tunic never red, reticulate or fibrous; inner filaments broadened for ca. 1/3 their length; ovary with concave nectaries at base.   (71)
       
71 (70) Perianth pale red or purple-red to purple.   (72)
+ Perianth white to pale yellow.   (77)
       
72 (71) Bulb tunic fibrous, sometimes subreticulate; pedicels ebracteolate   30 Allium plurifoliatum
+ Bulb tunic reticulate; pedicels bracteolate at base.   (73)
       
73 (72) Leaves semiterete   42 Allium clathratum
+ Leaves flat.   (74)
       
74 (73) Inner filaments entire   37 Allium schrenkii
+ Inner filaments with 1 or 2 teeth on each side.   (75)
       
75 (74) Perianth segments with red, slender midvein or without midvein; stigma punctiform   36 Allium lineare
+ Perianth segments with purple midvein; stigma capitate or subglobose.   (76)
       
76 (75) Perianth pale lilac to pinkish lilac   40 Allium splendens
+ Perianth pink to pink-red   41 Allium maackii
       
77 (71) Leaves 2--7 mm wide, flat; teeth of inner filaments entire   44 Allium flavidum
+ Leaves 1--5 mm wide, semiterete, fistulose; teeth of inner filaments sometimes irregularly 2--4-denticulate.   (78)
       
78 (77) Leaves equaling to distinctly longer than scape; pedicels ebracteolate   46 Allium flavovirens
+ Leaves shorter than scape; pedicels bracteolate at base   45 Allium leucocephalum
       
79 (68) Perianth yellow, later becoming red; filaments connate into tube for 3/5--4/5 their length   101 Allium semenovii
+ Perianth not yellow; filaments connate only basally or for 1/6--1/2 their length.   (80)
       
80 (79) Inner filaments toothed at base.   (81)
+ Inner filaments entire at base.   (87)
       
81 (80) Filaments ca. 1/2 as long as perianth segments   18 Allium forrestii
+ Filaments slightly shorter than or equaling perianth segments.   (82)
       
82 (81) Leaves 3--5 mm wide, flat.   (83)
+ Leaves 0.25--1 mm wide, semiterete.   (84)
       
83 (82) Filaments slightly longer than perianth segments; stigma punctiform   38 Allium amphibolum
+ Filaments slightly shorter than or equaling perianth segments   39 Allium strictum
       
84 (82) Bulb tunic subreticulate; filaments connate into a tube for 1/6--1/2 their length, tube adnate to perianth segments for 1/3--1/2 its length.   (85)
+ Bulb tunic distinctly reticulate; filaments connate only at base.   (86)
       
85 (84) Perianth segments 6--8.5 mm; filaments connate for 1/3--1/2 their length   54 Allium subangulatum
+ Perianth segments 3--6 mm; filaments connate for 1/6--1/3 their length   55 Allium polyrhizum
       
86 (84) Pedicels bracteolate at base; perianth pale purple to purple; ovary without concave nectaries at base   47 Allium eduardii
+ Pedicels ebracteolate; perianth pale red; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections   26 Allium aciphyllum
       
87 (80) Scape covered with leaf sheaths for 1/4--1/2 its length.   (88)
+ Scape covered with leaf sheaths only at base.   (91)
       
88 (87) Pedicels subequal; leaves 2--5 mm wide   39 Allium strictum
+ Pedicels unequal; leaves 0.5--1 mm wide.   (89)
       
89 (88) Bulb tunic distinctly reticulate   50 Allium tekesicola
+ Bulb tunic subreticulate.   (90)
       
90 (89) Bulb tunic brown; inner filaments basally ca. 2 × as wide as outer ones, distally abruptly subulate; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections   88 Allium korolkowii
+ Bulb tunic yellowish brown; inner filaments basally ca. 3 × as wide as outer ones, distally gradually attenuate; ovary with small, concave nectaries at base not covered by hoodlike projections   49 Allium teretifolium
       
91 (87) Bulb tunic reticulate or subreticulate; perianth white to pale red.   (92)
+ Bulb tunic fibrous or subreticulate at base; perianth dark purple, purple-red, or pale red.   (95)
       
92 (91) Inner filaments broadly triangular, basally ca. 2 × as wide as outer ones; perianth segments with dark purple midvein   34 Allium oreoprasum
+ Inner filaments narrowly triangular, basally only slightly wider than outer ones; perianth segments without dark purple midvein.   (93)
       
93 (92) Scape 5--15 cm; stigma slightly 3-cleft   35 Allium humile
+ Scape 25--60 cm; stigma punctiform.   (94)
       
94 (93) Leaves flat, solid; perianth segments white, usually with green midvein   32 Allium tuberosum
+ Leaves triangular, abaxially keeled, fistulose; perianth segments white, rarely pale red, usually with pale red midvein   33 Allium ramosum
       
95 (91) Inner filaments not broadened at base.   (96)
+ Inner filaments broadened at base.   (98)
       
96 (95) Leaves 8--10 mm wide   21 Allium rhynchogynum
+ Leaves 1--3 mm wide.   (97)
       
97 (96) Filaments 1/2--2/3 as long as perianth segments; ovary constricted at apex, without concave nectaries at base   17 Allium mairei
+ Filaments slightly shorter or longer than perianth segments; ovary not constricted at apex, with concave nectaries at base covered by narrow, hoodlike projections   20 Allium changduense
       
98 (95) Leaves 1.5--3(--5) mm wide, flat; perianth purple to dark purple   18 Allium forrestii
+ Leaves 0.3--1.5 mm wide, semiterete to terete; perianth pale red to purple-red.   (99)
       
99 (98) Leaves distinctly longer than scape; umbel laxly few flowered; perianth segments 3--3.5 mm; ovary with concave nectaries at base   92 Allium alabasicum
+ Leaves shorter than scape; umbel densely many flowered; perianth segments 6--9 mm; ovary without concave nectaries at base   51 Allium mongolicum
       
100 (60) Filaments shorter than perianth segments, never more than 4/5 as long as perianth segments.   (101)
+ Filaments slightly shorter to longer than perianth segments.   (115)
       
101 (100) Perianth blue.   (102)
+ Perianth white, pale red, purple-red, pale purple, purple, yellow, or bright yellow.   (104)
       
102 (101) Perianth segments narrowly oblong to narrowly ovate-oblong, 11--14(--17) mm, margin entire; filaments usually ca. 4/5 as long as perianth segments; style usually 2--3 × as long as ovary   22 Allium beesianum
+ Perianth segments ovate or ovate-oblong, 6--10 mm, margin of at least inner ones irregularly denticulate; filaments usually 1/2--2/3 as long as perianth segments; style usually shorter than or subequaling ovary.   (103)
       
103 (102) Perianth segments acuminate at apex, equal, irregularly denticulate at margin, rarely outer ones entire; leaves abaxially keeled, usually twisted when dry   23 Allium yuanum
+ Perianth segments obtuse at apex, inner ones longer and wider than outer, only inner ones irregularly denticulate at margin; leaves flat   24 Allium sikkimense
       
104 (101) Perianth pale or bright yellow.   (105)
+ Perianth white, pale red, purple-red, pale purple, or purple.   (106)
       
105 (104) Bulb cylindric; leaves slightly falcate, usually ca. 1/2 as long as or rarely subequaling scape, flat   79 Allium chrysocephalum
+ Bulb ovoid-globose to ovoid; leaves subequaling scape, semiterete   80 Allium herderianum
       
106 (104) Filaments connate into an urceolate tube for 3/4--4/5 their length   61 Allium weschniakowii
+ Filaments connate only at base or for 1/3--1/2 their length.   (107)
       
107 (106) Bulb tunic leathery; pedicels bracteolate at base; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections.   (108)
+ Bulb tunic membranous, papery, or thinly leathery; pedicels ebracteolate; ovary usually without concave nectaries at base (but present in A. pevtzovii).   (109)
       
108 (107) Bulb tunic brown, apex becoming fibrous and somewhat subreticulate; pedicels unequal, 2--3 × as long as perianth in fruit   88 Allium korolkowii
+ Bulb tunic light yellowish brown, apex laciniate; pedicels subequal, 1--2 × as long as perianth in fruit   89 Allium setifolium
       
109 (107) Perianth segments 2.8--5 mm, apex of inner ones truncate or rounded-truncate.   (110)
+ Perianth segments 6--18 mm, apex of inner ones obtuse or acuminate.   (112)
       
110 (109) Pedicels unequal, 1.5--3.5 cm; perianth segments 3.9--5 mm   60 Allium anisopodium
+ Pedicels subequal, 0.5--1.5 cm; perianth segments 2.8--4.2 mm.   (111)
       
111 (110) Bulb tunic laciniate; umbel hemispheric to globose, densely many flowered   59 Allium elegantulum
+ Bulb tunic splitting at apex; umbel hemispheric to fascicled, laxly flowered   58 Allium tenuissimum
       
112 (109) Inner filaments ovate at base, 1-toothed on each side; ovary with concave nectaries at base   87 Allium pevtzovii
+ Inner filaments subulate to narrowly ovate at base, entire; ovary without concave nectaries at base.   (113)
       
113 (112) Leaves 1.5--4 mm wide, flat; perianth segments 13--18 mm; filaments ca. 1/2 as long as perianth segments, all subulate   19 Allium kingdonii
+ Leaves 0.5--1 mm wide, semiterete; perianth segments 6--9 mm; filaments 2/3--3/4 as long as perianth segments, inner ones wider than outer.   (114)
       
114 (113) Bulbs densely clustered; bulb tunic papery, apex becoming fibrous; pedicels ca. 2 × as long as perianth; perianth segments ovate-oblong, 7--9 × 2.5--3 mm; broadened base of inner filaments narrowly triangular   53 Allium yongdengense
+ Bulbs laxly clustered; bulb tunic membranous, laciniate; pedicels 1--1.5 × as long as perianth; perianth segments elliptic to ovate, 6--7 × 3--4 mm; broadened base of inner filaments narrowly ovate   52 Allium caespitosum
       
115 (100) Leaves flat or keeled abaxially.   (116)
+ Leaves semiterete or terete, solid or fistulose, adaxially channeled.   (133)
       
116 (115) Bulbs attached to a stout, horizontal or oblique rhizome; scape usually 2-angled.   (117)
+ Bulbs attached to a vertical rhizome; scape terete.   (122)
       
117 (116) Leaves abaxially keeled; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections   65 Allium taishanense
+ Leaves flat; ovary without concave nectaries at base.   (118)
       
118 (117) Perianth white to yellow; pedicels ebracteolate   66 Allium chiwui
+ Perianth pale red or pale purple to purple-red; pedicels bracteolate at base.   (119)
       
119 (118) Leaves straight or spirally tortuous, (1.5--)2--6 mm wide.   (120)
+ Leaves straight or slightly falcate, 6--15 mm wide.   (121)
       
120 (119) Leaves straight, 1.5--4 mm wide   67 Allium spurium
+ Leaves spirally tortuous, 4--6 mm wide   68 Allium spirale
       
121 (119) Inner filaments entire at base   69 Allium senescens
+ Inner filaments 1-toothed on each side at base   70 Allium nutans
       
122 (116) Perianth yellowish green to pale yellow.   (123)
+ Perianth white, pale red, purple-red, purple, or blue.   (125)
       
123 (122) Scape covered with leaf sheaths for ca. 1/2 its length; pedicels 2--4 × as long as perianth, bracteolate at base   71 Allium obliquum
+ Scape covered with leaf sheaths at base only; pedicels 1--1.5 × as long as perianth, ebracteolate.   (124)
       
124 (123) Inner filaments entire at base; umbel globose, densely many flowered; leaves 3--8 mm wide   78 Allium rude
+ Inner filaments 1-toothed on each side at base; umbel laxly flowered; leaves 2--3 mm wide   64 Allium brevidentatum
       
125 (122) Inner filaments with 1 irregularly denticulate tooth on each side at base; ovary with concave nectaries at base covered by hoodlike projections.   (126)
+ Inner filaments entire at base or, if toothed, teeth never denticulate; ovary with concave nectaries at base not covered by hoodlike projections.   (127)
       
126 (125) Leaves broadly linear to linear-lanceolate, 5--23 mm wide; spathe with a long beak sometimes to 7 cm; perianth white   29 Allium paepalanthoides
+ Leaves linear, 2--6(--8) mm wide; spathe with a short beak; perianth pale red, pale purple, or purple   30 Allium plurifoliatum
       
127 (125) Spathe with long beak   82 Allium kurssanovii
+ Spathe with short beak.   (128)
       
128 (127) Bulb tunic blackish gray to black, papery or membranous.   (129)
+ Bulb tunic red-brown or brown to yellowish brown, leathery or thinly so.   (130)
       
129 (128) Leaves falcate; perianth white; ovary without concave nectaries at base   76 Allium phariense
+ Leaves straight; perianth pink or pinkish lilac; ovary with concave nectaries at base   77 Allium platyspathum
       
130 (128) Leaves 1--1.5(--3) mm wide, margin scabrous-denticulate; ovary without concave nectaries at base   73 Allium kaschianum
+ Leaves 2--17 mm wide, margin smooth; ovary with concave nectaries at base.   (131)
       
131 (130) Bulb tunic red-brown, lustrous   72 Allium hymenorhizum
+ Bulb tunic brown to yellowish brown, dull.   (132)
       
132 (131) Leaves usually falcate; inner filaments broadened at base   74 Allium carolinianum
+ Leaves usually not falcate; inner filaments not broadened at base   75 Allium blandum
       
133 (115) Inner filaments obtusely 1-toothed on each side at base.   (134)
+ Inner filaments entire at base.   (136)
       
134 (133) Perianth white or pale yellow; style conspicuously exserted; ovary with concave nectaries at base   46 Allium flavovirens
+ Perianth red, pale purple-red, or purple-red; style not exserted; ovary without concave nectaries at base.   (135)
       
135 (134) Inner filaments broadened for ca. 4/5 their length   56 Allium bidentatum
+ Inner filaments broadened for ca. 1/2 their length   57 Allium dentigerum
       
136 (133) Beak of spathe several times as long as limb.   (137)
+ Beak of spathe shorter than or equaling limb.   (138)
       
137 (136) Perianth segments pale yellow with green midvein   84 Allium petraeum
+ Perianth segments purple-red to pale red, rarely white, with dark midvein   81 Allium saxatile
       
138 (136) Perianth white, pale yellow, or greenish yellow.   (139)
+ Perianth pale red, red, pale purple, or purple.   (141)
       
139 (138) Leaves solid, margin ciliate-denticulate   85 Allium tianschanicum
+ Leaves fistulose, margin smooth.   (140)
       
140 (139) Bulb tunic red-brown, lustrous; scape solid; pedicels bracteolate at base   93 Allium condensatum
+ Bulb tunic light brown to brown, dull; scape fistulose; pedicels ebracteolate   94 Allium xichuanense
       
141 (138) Pedicels bracteolate at base.   (142)
+ Pedicels ebracteolate.   (147)
       
142 (141) Ovary with longitudinally convex nectaries along septa; nectary pit at ovary base open   90 Allium subtilissimum
+ Ovary without nectaries or only with concave nectaries at base.   (143)
       
143 (142) Bulbs attached to a robust, horizontal rhizome; filaments equaling or slightly longer than perianth segments; ovary without concave nectaries   62 Allium prostratum
+ Bulbs attached to vertical rhizome; filaments 1.25--2 × as long as perianth segments; ovary with concave nectaries.   (144)
       
144 (143) Bulb tunic red-brown, lustrous, scarious to subleathery; leaves 2--3 mm wide, margin smooth   91 Allium longistylum
+ Bulb tunic brown, dull, leathery; leaves 0.5--2 mm wide, margin ciliate- or scabrous-denticulate.   (145)
       
145 (144) Bulb tunic leathery, entire or laciniate at apex; ovary with concave nectaries covered by hoodlike projections   83 Allium caricoides
+ Bulb tunic thinly leathery to papery, splitting; ovary with concave nectaries not covered by hoodlike projections.   (146)
       
146 (145) Bulbs to 10 cm; tunic yellowish brown; filaments ca. 1/2 as long as perianth segments   86 Allium megalobulbon
+ Bulbs shorter; tunic brown; filaments 1.25--1.5 × as long as perianth segments   85 Allium tianschanicum
       
147 (141) Inner filaments conspicuously broadly ovate or ovate-oblong at base.   (148)
+ Inner filaments subulate to narrowly triangular at base, gradually attenuate toward apex.   (149)
       
148 (147) Bulb tunic grayish white, sometimes reddish; pedicels 2--3 × as long as perianth; perianth purple-red; style slightly longer than ovary   57 Allium dentigerum
+ Bulb tunic brown; pedicels shorter than or equaling perianth; perianth pale red; style shorter than ovary   56 Allium bidentatum
       
149 (147) Scape covered with leaf sheaths for 1/3--1/2 its length; leaves 1 or 2, margin smooth; perianth pink   104 Allium oliganthum
+ Scape covered with leaf sheaths only at base; leaves more than 3, margin scabrid; perianth pale purple or red-purple.   (150)
       
150 (149) Inner perianth segments irregularly denticulate at distal margin and apex; style exserted   62 Allium prostratum
+ Inner perianth segments entire; style not exserted   63 Allium rubens